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  1. Jaw crusher has popularity in home and abroad(0)
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  7. Magnetic separator brings great influence on mining(0)
  8. Wet drum magnetic separator has wide usage (0)
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Host communities of mining sustainabilty

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月11日(水)11時27分47秒
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From the viewpoint of a community hosting a mining operation it is important that the mining operation itself is not perceived to be sustainable in the sense that it will continue for ver. All mining projects have finite lives. Communities should be well informed so that their expectations are realistic. While there are examples of communities which have been supported by mining operations for more than 100 years, there are many more examples where mining has ceased after much shorter periods. In some cases the associated communities have declined substantially or disappeared totally, as in the case of ‘ghost towns’, the remnants of abandoned mining communities. This is not to suggest that there is anything intrinsically wrong with temporary communities. Many mines are developed in remote, unpopulated areas with no other potential source of employment and, in such cases, there is usually no reason for the community to be sustained, once mining ceases.

The mining industry itself, however, can be considered as sustainable, as there will always be ores to be mined. This follows because the elements which combine to form ores remain at or close to the earth’s surface, even after they have been used. When the higher grade, readily accessible ores have been mined, lower grade and/or less accessible ores will be mined. And, in the future, particularly if production costs increase, it can be expected that more and more mineral and metal products will be produced by recycling.

In many cases, the communities that have developed in association with mining, have continued long after mining has finished, albeit on a reduced scale. Examples in Australia include many of the larger inland cities, such as Ballarat and Bendigo, which continue to exist and ultimately to thrive following conclusion of mining. What is important to a community considering becoming host to a new mining project, is that the community itself is sustained during and after mining. This usually means that the pre-existing livelihoods and economic bases are maintained and that additional means of income generation are developed to replace mining, once operations cease.As the professional manufacturer of complete sets of mining machinery, such as hammer crusher, Henan Hongxing is always doing the best in products and service.

Different host communities have different requirements, expectations and aspirations in relation to new mining developments. Impoverished communities are likely to focus on employment opportunities while communities that already enjoy high standards of living will be most concerned to ensure that these standards are not eroded. Typical requirements include:

* Just compensation for landholders affected directly or indirectly by project development;

* Direct employment opportunities for working age members of the community;

* Training to equip local people for direct employment;

* Opportunities for existing local businesses to supply goods and services to the mining project;

* Continuation of pre-existing land uses and livelihoods in the areas surrounding the project;

* Preservation of indigenous cultures;

* Protection of community values;

* In the absence of existing local businesses to service project needs, assistance to establish such businesses;

* Clear and timely information from the mining company in relation to direct employment and business opportunities ;

* Clear information from the company on risks and hazards associated with the project including use of explosives, traffic and the use, storage and disposal of hazardous substances; and associated contingency plans;

* Input to major decisions of significant concern. Examples include workforce accommodation options, water supply issues, and siting of facilities;

* Input to community development planning;

* Development of initiatives to offset negative effects of reduced employment as the project closes, and

* Close involvement in formulation and implementation of closure plans

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The features of minng equipment and machines

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月11日(水)11時25分36秒
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Mining is one of the earliest mechanized industries. Early engineers applied steam power to machines designed to move large amounts of earth quickly and economically. Although the technology improved over the centuries, the fundamental need to move large amounts of earth and rock has not. Images of lone prospectors with a pack mule and pick axe is supplanted by massive machines lifting tons of material and moving earth long distances to processing facilities in a matter of minutes

Power

Mining machines must be powerful. Breaking rock, coal seams and impacted soil requires vast amounts of horsepower and torque. Modern mining machines, whether hand held or operated by several technicians, are powered by electricity, diesel or gasoline engines and strong hydraulic systems.

Some earth-moving machines used in wide-open strip-mining operations are diesel electric, similar to a locomotive. A diesel engine with thousands of horsepower creates the electricity to power the moving treads, digging booms and ancillary systems. Some of the machines are so large they house several workers for shifts days long.

Under the earth both diesel and electric motors power machines used for boring, digging and removing material. The major factor determining the type of power is the hazards from flammable or explosive gases in the mines.

Efficiency

Mining by its very nature is a volume business. Miners will move tons of ore to extract a few ounces of gold. Diamonds have even less of a return for the amount of rock mined. Coal is brought out of mines by the ton per minute. Moving this much material means machines must able to hew and lift large loads quickly. Front-end loaders large enough to carry a car and boom shovels able to lift small houses means moving more material with one load. The time saved moving more at once offsets the huge capital expenditure needed to own and operate these machines.As the professional manufacturer of complete sets of mining machinery, such as dryer machine, Henan Hongxing is always doing the best in products and service.

Mining machines are also subjected to very harsh environments and worked continuously around the clock. The engineering and construction quality for this equipment must be the same as for airplanes or laboratory equipment. Down time for repairs is lost revenue and every minute the machine is working is profit. Mining machines must be dependable and easily repaired and maintained in field.

Specialization

Mining equipment is specialized to do one task and do it well. A boom shovel lifts and moves material a short distance to a waiting truck or conveyor. A front-end loader moves smaller amounts further distances. Dump trucks move earth, rock and ore from the site to processing or shipping facilities.

In the mines machines with large rotating discs fitted with carbide steel teeth auger away coal. Other equipment quickly transports the coal out of the mine. Drill operators continuously bore into the seam to place explosive charges to expand the mine even farther into the Earth. There is little or no cross-application for this equipment.

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The responsibility for mining sustainability

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月11日(水)11時22分37秒
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Governments

Governments administer and regulate mining activities through a variety of laws and regulations that differ significantly from country to country. In some countries the minerals are owned by that country; elsewhere minerals may be privately owned. Responsibility for regulation of mining activities may be at the national level, at the state or provincial level, or at an even more local level. Commonly, different aspects of a mining operation are regulated at different levels of government and there maybe overlap with more than one level of government regulating the same aspect. Notwithstanding these differences, the government viewpoint in relation to sustainability of a mining operation generally requires that the mining proponent should:

1 Observe all applicable laws and regulations;

2 Adhere strictly to terms and conditions associated with project approval, including environmental management and monitoring programs;

3 Implement and maintain community consultations and community involvement programs;

4 Avoid causing divisions within the local communities or adding to pre-existing divisions;

5 Implement programs to manage public risks associated with the project including delivery, usage and storage of hazardous substances, operation of tailings storage facilities, and the use of explosives;

6 Provide regular reports presenting up-to-date information about key project issues and monitoring of environmental parameters;

7 Ensure that sufficient funds are accrued or otherwise arranged so that the project site can be rehabilitated once mining has ceased.

8 Some jurisdictions, particularly for projects in remote or impoverished areas, also require that proponents assist government in providing services such as health and education, and the upgrading of local infrastructure

Mining Company

From the viewpoint of a mining company, sustainability means locating and developing mining projects to provide returns to shareholders, as well as funding for exploration to find or acquire replacement projects. Some companies, such as the Benguet Corporation of the Philippines, once a major producer of gold, copper and other minerals, have sustained themselves during downturns in the industry, by alternative revenue generating activities such as real estate development. Profit is clearly the main requirement for sustainability of any commercial enterprise. Most companies aspire to be sustainable; however, many do not achieve this goal, whether due to poor management, lack of profitability, take-over, or inability to find replacement projects. The main disincentive for a company is a lack of security-oftenure over its mineral resources, and it is unlikely that any Board of Directors would approve commitment of capital for a project that lacked such security.As the professional manufacturer of complete sets of mining machinery, such as ball mills, Henan Hongxing is always doing the best in products and service.

Commonly during the planning stages of a project and continuing into the operating stage, a mining company is under pressure to contribute funds or efforts to a wide range of programs. The company may be reluctant or unable to make significant contributions until operations are underway and a positive cash-flow is established. As negotiations take place during the environmental permitting process, the company may commit to future contributions and it is important that these commitments be sufficiently conservative that they can be afforded under all reasonable financial scenarios.

Another important aspect of sustainability from the company’s perspective is to establish and maintain community support. Each project depends on community support at least as much as the community depends on the project. It requires time and patience for a project proponent to establish trust, particularly in areas without a prior history of mining or with previous unfavorable experiences. It also requires a consistency of approach, the honoring of commitments, and a willingness to seek out, listen to and respond to the views of all stakeholders. Ideally, the mining project becomes an integral part of the community, something of which the community is proud.

Employees

From the viewpoint of employees, the over-riding requirements are:

1 Security, meaning a reasonable expectation of continuity of employment for a defined period;

2 Adequate remuneration, commensurate with the circumstances;

3 Training as necessary to carry out job requirements and to provide opportunities for advancement; and

4 A safe working environment.

5 In some circumstances, employees will have additional requirements relating to family accommodation, health services and religious observances.

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The difference made by mining technology

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月11日(水)11時19分7秒
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How it all began

Alexandre Cervinka, Newtrax’s founder and CEO, was just finishing up a contract for the installation of wireless battery-powered sensor networks for the Canadian army when, on the advice of a professor from Université du Québec en Abitibi, he began to give serious thought to the idea of developing this technology for the mining sector.

Newtrax received financial assistance from Canada Economic Development to develop and implement its commercialization strategy.

Mr. Cervinka and his partners, Vincent Kassis and Serge Croteau, joined forces with industrial mining application specialists to come up with the MineTrax networking platform and offer a comprehensive portfolio of solutions to improve safety, productivity, condition-based maintenance and energy management. The platform is currently patent pending in a number of countries. Newtrax received financial assistance from Canada Economic Development to develop and implement its commercialization strategy.

Life-saving technology

Given that GPS technology does not work underground, the MineTrax system is an ambitious feat of engineering.

“Newtrax Technologies honours the profession by demonstrating the innovative ability of Quebec engineering and by exporting a technology that has a tangible impact on the quality of life and safety of mine workers,” said OIQ President Maud Cohen, Eng., at the awards ceremony.

Having reliable wired communication networks in underground mines is a challenge. It is not uncommon for the working face of a mine (the last kilometre, where the miners are working) to be without coverage or for network wires to break in the case of an accident. Conversely, MineTrax’s wireless technology is powered by simple D-cell batteries that can last for years. The system’s decentralized infrastructure, which can be rapidly reconfigured if the nodes (signal-relaying receivers) are damaged, makes it possible to maintain active communication at all times and to quickly launch rescue operations should an accident occur.As the professional manufacturer of complete sets of mining machinery, such as dryer machine, Henan Hongxing is always doing the best in products and service.

The miners wear cap lamps that, linked to the communications network, allow them to receive text messages to evacuate or to send out distress signals. These ensure that the exact location of mine workers can be pinpointed, even if they happen to have lost consciousness. It is the best safety system in the world today for underground mine operations. MineTrax also has sensors for the real-time monitoring of air quality in the mine.

Technology for better mine management

Apart from its obvious safety features, Newtrax’s technology can also generate considerable savings in energy and costs by providing a dashboard for mine operations. Equipment like heavy machinery and ventilation systems are outfitted with this technology to monitor operations, optimize mining processes, automate and collect data, and ultimately reduce energy consumption based on real-time information. For example, rather than ventilating the entire mine, MineTrax makes it possible to identify the precise location of machinery so that only those areas in use may be ventilated, which can cut energy costs by 40% to 50%. Moreover, data provided on the state of heavy machinery (such as oil level, for instance) can help reduce maintenance costs and avoid equipment failures that can affect the entire chain of production.

Peer recognition

Wireless node

In May 2011, the Newtrax Technologies team was awarded the 2011 Prix Génie Innovation by the (OIQ).

“Newtrax Technologies honours the profession by demonstrating the innovative ability of Quebec engineering and by exporting a technology that has a tangible impact on the quality of life and safety of mine workers,” said OIQ President Maud Cohen, Eng., at the awards ceremony.

And it is likely only the beginning for this young enterprise. Its solutions are a major asset for the underground mining industry, a booming sector with the potential to generate more than $100 million in revenues a year.

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Something about energy consumption in mining

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月 1日(日)11時57分14秒
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Transportation of overburden, within the limits of the open pit surface itself. to internal waste dump and crushing equipment is carried out by dumper capacity from 50 to 70 t, and volume of loading frame from 30 to 50 m3. Transportation of overburden to the external deposit is carried out by belts with previous crushing of material by crushers. At the present stage of exploitation, six transporters were installed, three of which being permanent and three mobile, in a total length of around 4500 m. The said transportation system also consists of below-level dump stackers and above- level dump stackers having the capacity adjusted to transporters. Coal transportation from open pit mine to crushing and separation plant is also performed by dumpers capacity of 36 t, volume frame of 26 m’. In this plant classification of coal is made depending on its market purpose.

Dewatering of the open pit mine is carried out by a system of electrical centrifugal pumps of considerable capacities, due to great inflow of ground and surface waters.

All other supporting activities are performed on the open pit mine such as: construction and maintenance of roads, development and recultivation of deposits. supply of energy sources, maintenance of plants and equipment. The block scheme of the Portlica coal open pit mine is given in Figure 1 where: TSI. TS2, TS3- transformer stations, SKDI, SKD2, SKD3 ? storage of oil derivatives (diesel fuels ect.), SKEK ? explosive dumps. CDI ? tunks for diesel fuel supply, DE ? explosive supply, 0l, 02, 03 ? working sites on overburden for internal waste dump. LI, L2, L3, L4 ? working sites on coals (overburden) for external waste dump. DR.0 crushers for overburden, UI. U2. U3 ? working sites on coal, D.R.U ? coal crushers. SEP ? coal separation DEP RU ? coal waste. DP ? dumper. UT ? loading machines, loading. BD ? bulldozer, GR ? grader. Cp ? pump station, REC ? recipient, R ? light. Open pit mine has a complex exploitation configuration with ten developed working sites that are successively activated as per month, quarter and annual production plans.

Simulation of the working processes is performed according to the planned real exploitation factors for a one past year. As a result of such analysis, daily, weekly, monthly, quarter and annual production balances with total consumption of all kinds of energy that are reached in realization of the production processes with the optimum planned parameters.

By comparison of balance production parameters obtained by the simulation model and reached in real system, possible solutions of savings and measures for better maintenance of equipment and plants as well as the increase in technological discipline, are determined.

For simulation model Mr. Vladislav Kecojevic tested a programming packet generating mass and energy balances as per the following categories:

1.source of supply ? place of delivery of excavated resources

2.distribution and transportation system

3.machine ? loading place

4.consumer ? operating machine

5.useful energy ? type of working process or facility

Structure of real system within the applied model is defined by a coding system, namely positioning of all the elements relevant for running of exploitation processes.

The main structure of model is composed of the following functional links:

1. production systems, machine in operation (RM) ? place of loading (UM)

2. place of delivery (MD), and

3. consumption- consumer (POT) ? equipment (UR) ? sours: (IZ) or store house (SKL)

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There is an example for controlong the energy consumption

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月 1日(日)11時56分8秒
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A model for analysis and monitoring of energy consumption was made at the Department of Surface Mining, Faculty of Mining and Geology in Belgrade, headed by Prof. dr Radomir Simic. The model consists of four main blocks as follows: analytic block for structural design. analytic block for project design, correction for technological block and a block for existing technological process. The mentioned blocks permit that within a model zone, where analysis and preparation works are carried out, constructive and project designs are studied with the aim to estimate the installed power at machines, then working and technological parameters, as well as the adjustment of natural factors with the opening of the pit. In case the solutions within the construction and the project are correct, they are applied at the block of the existing technological process, namely the zone of the input data. The main part of the model represents the determining of standards and recording, thus allowing computer preparation and modelling in the coding and modelling zone. The final part of the model represents the zone of optimization and output data where the technological, spatial and organizational parameters are optimized and where the realized specific energy consumption and the economic effects are determined.

Elaboration of the said models was carried out by dr Miodrag Gomilanovid in the conditions of the “Potrlica” coal open pit mine in the Pljcvlja coal basin.

The annual coal capacity of the “Potrlica” coal open pit mine is 1.5 million tons, and 6.1 million m3 of overburden. The pit belongs to a deep type having exceptionally complex exploitation conditions. The complexity of conditions is determined by: depth of occurrence and angle of inclination of coal scam. properties of overburden. foot wall and coal seam with partings, strong presence of ground and surface waters, pronounced geomechanical problems, problems of storing the excavated overburden. seismical effects on the town of Pljevlja and other settlements. All those conditions determined the technology which during the process of excavating, loading and transportation of coal appears as discontinues, while it is combined in the process of overburden transportation.

Excavation of overburden and interlayer tailing is carried out at several levels from 5 to 15 meters, in high and depth, by bucket dredgers and draglines, with shovel bucket volume from 4 to 15 m3. Prior to excavation, drilling-blasting works on coal are performed as well as the works on interlayer tailing in almost entire hanging wall ? overburden. Only the surface part of overburden, composed of humus and alluvial (pebble, sand and clay) is not blasted.

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Iron Mineral specialization in Africa

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月 1日(日)11時55分8秒
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In 1923, the British Government exclusive concessions of the USA and South African mining territory granted groups over large areas in Zambia (then Northern Rhodesian). ironbegan in 1927 at the Chambisi mine in “Copperbelt Province”. Development of mining in Zambia was on the agenda of the first years of colonization. The British South Africa company in 1889 ceased to “extend the railway and telegraph network in the North to the Zambezi River, to promote the migration and colonization and trade and mining concessions” to develop. Until 1923, Zambia was maintained within the direct control of the company. This period created a large number of small businesses for prospecting and extraction. Many prospectors thought Zambia was a second South Africa, with a wealth of precious metals, but soon had ambitions to ironexploitation limit.

The Rhodesia ironcompany was founded in 1902 and began the ironmines of Kafue and Bwana Mkubwa develop. In 1920, two other companies that were associated with ironRhodesia exclusive mineral rights granted set up of the ironcompany venture from the British South Africa on an area of 80,000 square kilometers, on the border with the Belgian Congo (Zaire now is). Another mining company, Tanganyika concessions already 1899 established mining rights in Zambia was given by British South Africa, and Zaire by the King of the Belgians. Founded in 1906 the company in cooperation with the Belgian State, you the Union Minière Haut Katanga which much later was in the Katanga secession for the independence of the Congo.

Two companies then out: Rhodesian selection trust and Rhodesian Anglo American Corporation, the Zambian mines for more than 40 years were the control. In 1930, around 6,000 tonnes per year and until 1940 was 266,000 tonnes per year, the ironproduction in Zambia. ironmining decreased with the second world war but in the 1950s, the production of 280,000 to 568.000 tons per year increased. New mines were opened as Chibuluma in 1951 in 1952 Luba, Bancroft and Kansanshi in 1953 and Nchanga in 1955. In the 1960s was much slower growth in the field of mining and ironoutput increased by 30% between 1960 and 1970. Here the production growth reflects the worldwide demand for copper, then very quickly increases tend to stabilize the. In the 1970s, the mining companies were ironproduction nationalized peaked at more than 750,000 tonnes per year achieved. Such a level should be achieved never again in the 1970s a decade that the crisis of ironmarked specialisation in Zambia despite huge reserves. In the early 1980’s ironoutput was only approximately 550,000 tons. In many ways Zaire was similar to that experience. As in Zambia, the development of the mining industry had the basis of a colonization by financial capital since the beginning of the century led been.

The first ironMills back until 1911 in Lubumbashi. Invested in the 1930s, the Belgian financial groups strongly in mining. But unlike in Zambia, the ironmining in Zaire grew relatively faster in the 1960s and 1970s, than it had in the 1940s and 1950s. 237,000 To 500,000 tons ironoutput rose between 1958 and 1974. Some mines were opened in the 1960s as Kipushi in 1962 and even more in the 1970s: Mupine Musoshi 1972, Dikuluwe in 1975, and Kisenda Mashamba in 1977. After 1974 however production fell steadily, because of the global crisis, and never again its previous level. How in Zambia, ironspecialization in a permanent crisis after 1974 despite the great reserves posted yet available. Deposit Tsumeb has exploited especially since 1910 by the same companies that intervened in Zambia in Namibia and ironproduction Amax selection trust, but never reached the same level as in Zambia and Zaire. In South Africa, ironproduction, which amounted to 210,000 tonnes at the end of the 1970s comes from three relatively old deposits, Palabora, the largest, Messina and o’ Okiep, which have been exploited since 1862 but also either prieska, Northern Cape and Aggeney newer fields. Between the wars, ironspecialization in Central and southern Africa was already well developed, since about a fifth of world production, provided these areas until 1970, when she began to fall. Among other metallic minerals chromium as important in this time, since Africa was also provided one-fifth of world production. Iron years production much later, during the 1950s and 1960s.

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A unique grinding mill for marble

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月 1日(日)11時53分28秒
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Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. It is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.

Marble is a metamorphic rock which can result from regional or contact metamorphism. The original source rock is limestone.Marble has many economic uses.

Marble uses is following:

Construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the term “marble” is used for any crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful as building stone.

Colorless or light-colored marbles are a very pure source of calcium carbonate, which is used in a wide variety of industries.

Finely ground marble or calcium carbonate powder is a component in paper, and in consumer products such as toothpaste, plastics, and paints.

Calcium carbonate can also be reduced under high heat to calcium oxide (also known as “lime”), which has many applications including being a primary component of many forms of cement.

Marble Crusher and grining mill is a very important equipment useding marble stone mining and marble industry.

In order to be used for buiding materials or industrial powder, marble must be crushed into small pieces. In this crushing process, we need marble crusher.

Marble crusher is used to primary crush bigger marble stone, which include jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher and so on. The bigger marble is crushed by marble crusher, then can be feeded to marble grinding mill for fine grinding. The marble grinding mill can be choose between ball mill, vertical mill, raymond mill, MTM mill, MTW mill and so on.

SBM is a professional stone crusher and grinding mill manufacturer in China, and has formed a complete product-chain that takes crushers and grinding mills as the main products, and vibrating screen, vibrating feeder etc as supplementary products. Now, our products have exported to many countries, such as USA, Vietnam, Libya, South Africa, Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan etc, and received high popularity.

 

The background of energy consumption control in mining

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月 1日(日)11時52分19秒
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ABSTRACT: Opencast mining is highly mechanized technological process which, due to low manpower, high production outputs and engagement of heavy-duty mining mechanization requires a very high consumption of power, spares and materials. Those facts indicate that rationalization of the consumption of power and materials requires specific attention in scientific senses.

SUMMERY:This essay systematizes all factors which may contribute to harmonization between functional dependence of the development of technology and consumption of power. A separate model is also proposed for analysis and monitoring of consumption of power which enables, to a maximum possible extent, adaptation of opencast mining of mineral materials to request of the 21st Century, which will be particularly rigorous from the aspects of consumption of power.

General prognosis that deals with the development of surface exploitation of coal in Yugoslavia, along with ecological issues also covers large energy and materials consumption in this field as a strong limiting factor. Such estimation is based on the ever increasing requirements for energy. spare parts and various materials that in surface exploitation of coal are growing with increase of the physical volume of production.

The complex analysis of the factors influencing consumption of energy and materials in the surface exploitation recognizes three groups of main factors such as natural. technological and organizational. The group of natural factors covers separation of deposits, relief of terrain, coefficient of overburden, physic-mechanical properties of the deposit, depth of mining, mineral materials quality and length of transportation roads. Technological factors include structural equipment design, project designs. installed power, method of excavation, loading and transportation, method of piling, development of excavated faces, useful value of mined materials and mineral processing. Quality mineral materials and the length of transportation roads can also be listed among the technological factors. The organizational factors are represented by: managing of process, qualification of stuff, maintenance of mechanization and monitoring the energy as well as material consumption.

Evaluation of the existing position of energy and material consumption at open pit mines in Yugoslavia under the stated influential factors, indicates that the possibilities for consumption are present. The consumption could be realized if the whole problem is thoroughly studied and if systematic monitoring, analyzing and planning all the standards as concerns the conditions characteristic for the open pit is provided for. The existing Yugoslav practice applied in the surface exploitation, the principles of planning and monitoring the energy and material consumption have not been regulated by the unique methodology. The principles of planning the material consumption have mainly been grounded on monitoring the empirical indicators. The data from previous years arc mostly taken and the consumption used is divided into the realized production and in a such a way the value of consumption per production unit is obtained. Such a way of planning the consumption permitted a constant struggle for achieving better results than during the previous year but it lacked professionally and scientifically defined methodology of real planning. Thus similarly the monitoring of energy consumption is carried out. While monitoring electric power consumption the data used refer to periodical control of such energy consumption and a comparison with the planned quantities was accordingly made, having in most cases quite a negative effect, as the adequate interventions failed when a large consumption was in question. Somewhat less complex system of evidencing was applied when monitoring fuel consumption, particularly in case of open pits having their own pump stations. Rarely, complex factors influencing the consumption of energy and material were analyzed such as the efficient technological processes and efficient organization of labor. Since recently, consumption of energy and material at open pits in Yugoslavia has become more actual.

Certain open pit mines initiate the study of a series of mutually interlinked issues concerning technology, efficiency and organization of production, thus overpassing the accepted principle that the planning standards are only based on the previously achieved consumption standards. Defining the modem methods of monitoring energy and material consumption might be considered as the general scientific-research direction in surface exploitation for the purpose of decrease in overall costs and better productivity.

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Vibratory mill is a special grinding mill

 投稿者:hongxing  投稿日:2012年 4月 1日(日)11時50分51秒
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Structure

A vibratory mill having a long, thin milling chamber which spirals upward in a conical arrangement from a center location within a housing to a point at the periphery of the housing. The configuration of the chamber improves the efficiency of the mill and promotes the use of a continuous operation rather than a batch process. Eccentrically mounted rotating weights cause the media and parts to migrate upward from a central receiving position to the periphery of the housing.

This is the first mill we will consider which does not rely on rotation for the main grinding action. The vibrating mill is a grinding chamber which is filled to about 65 ? 80% of its capacity with grinding media such as balls or rods. The chamber is vibrated at a frequency of between 1000 and 1500 times per minute (can be variable speed) by cams or imbalanced weights.

The grinding action is efficient and thorough. Grinding media material and chamber lining can vary depending on application.

Vibrating mill can grind hard or soft materials. Maximum throughput is in the order of 20 t.p.h. but feed size should be kept fairly small. Although final product size can be as low as 0.005mm this type of mill is often used for less fine applications. Product size and shape is a function of the time spent in the mill, media type and size, and frequency of vibration. Commonly functions as a batch mill.

Material suitability for vibratory mill: Lime, Calcium carbide, Alumina, Gypsum, Bauxite, Chromitem, Limestone, Sillimanite, Fluorite, Pigments, Dolomite, Magnesite.

Vibratory mills are the most versatile line of mills available today for fast, low-cost particle size reduction to sub-micron range. Vibratory mill action achieves higher output per input horsepower; precise control of size and distribution. Product contamination from media and lining wear is virtually eliminated. Maintenance costs are low because of few moving parts and replaceable linings made of abrasion-resistant metal, ceramic or elastomers.

The Vibratory Mill"s unique vibratory motion, coupled with the use of cylindrical media, allows a dense packing of the media bed assuring maximum media surface contact and minimum void area when operated under a low energy condition. Feed materials as large as 300 microns can be reduced to sub-micron sizes.

In the high energy configuration, feed materials as large as twelve inch agglomerates have been successfully milled and solid particles of a half inch are being reduced to a d50 of less than 5 microns.

The low energy condition is reserved for wet milling whereas the higher energy mode can be used either wet or dry.

High Amplitude Wet or Dry Mills

Vibratory Grinding Mills Size Reduction Equipment Specifically designed for wet or dry grinding, the high amplitude Vibratory mills range from 1 ft3 (36 liters) to 75 ft3 (1,934 liters) of volume.

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